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World Congress on Insulin Resistance Diabetes, Endocrinology Metabolism and Nursing, will be organized around the theme “Endeavouring Health Care on Diabetes and Endocrinology”

Diabetes & Endocrinology 2019 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Diabetes & Endocrinology 2019

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Insulin resistance is a condition in which your body does not respond to insulin as it should. This condition, sometimes referred to as impaired glucose tolerance, often occurs before  prediabetes or metabolic syndrome  develops. If left untreated, long term complications can include type 2 diabetes ,heart disease and vascular disease .Insulin resistance is usually recognized between the ages of 40 to 60,but it can begin at younger or older ages as well. It is often associated with higher than average weight ,high triglyceride levels and high blood pressure.

 

Diabetes is diagnosed by a blood test. Most people with type 1 diabetes and some with type 2 diabetes will present with symptoms of diabetes such as increased thirst, urination and tiredness. Some people will also have signs of slow healing of wounds or persistent infections. One of three  blood tests can be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes: Fasting plasma glucose(FPG) levels – a blood test after 8 hours of no eating , Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) – to measure a marker of the average blood glucose level over the past 2-3 months ,Oral  glucose testing(OGTT) – a test used less frequently that measures levels before and 2 hours after consuming a sweet drink .

 

Smokers are 30-40 % more likely than non-smokers to develop diabetes, People who have diabetes already and who smoke are more likely to have uncontrolled diabetes. Smokers who have diabetes  are more likely to experience kidney and heart disease ,have poor circulation leading to infections, ulcers, blood clots or amputations , suffer eye diseases such as retinopathy, that can cause blindness, experience nerve damage that leads to pain ,tingling and mobility impairments.

 

Diabetes complications are divided into micro vascular (due to damage of small blood vessels ) and macro vascular (due to damage of larger blood vessels).Micro vascular  complications include retinopathy(damage to eyes),nephropathy (damage to kidneys), neuropathy( damage to nerves),diabetic  foot disorders.  Macro vascular complications include cardiovascular diseases such as heart attacks ,strokes and insufficiency in blood flow to legs. There is evidence from large randomized  controlled trials that good metabolic control  in both types can delay the onset and progression of these complications.

 

Diabetic retinopathy is a condition that occurs in people who have diabetes .It causes progressive damage to the retina ,the light sensitive lining at the back of the eye .Diabetic retinopathy is a serious sight threatening complication of  diabetes. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when these tiny blood vessels   leak blood and other fluids .This causes the retinal tissue to swell , resulting in cloudy or blurred vision. The condition usually affects both eyes. The longer a person has diabetes, the more likely they will develop   diabetic retinopathy. If  left  untreated , diabetic retinopathy can cause blindness.

 

In type 1 diabetes, the body does not produce insulin .The body breaks down the carbohydrates you eat into blood glucose which it uses for energy. Insulin is a hormone that the body needs to get glucose from the bloodstream into the cells of the body. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. Usually , the body’s own immune system – which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses – mistakenly destroys  the insulin producing cells (islets or Langerhans)  in the pancreas.

 

Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which cells cannot use blood sugar efficiently for energy. This happens when the cells become insensitive to insulin and the blood sugar gradually gets too high. Type 2  can be caused by : being overweight, eating a lot of foods or drinks with sugar and simple carbohydrates , artificial sweeteners, lack of activity, lack of exercise, stress and stress hormones, genetics.

 

Gestational diabetes mellitus is a form of diabetes that occurs during pregnancy. Most women will no longer have diabetes after the baby is born.  However , some women will continue to have high blood glucose levels after delivery.it is diagnosed when higher than normal blood glucose levels first appear during pregnancy.  Between  12 – 14 % of pregnant women will develop gestational diabetes  and this usually occurs around the 24th to 28th week of pregnancy.

 

Intensive insulin therapy is an aggressive treatment approach designs to control your blood sugar levels. Intensive insulin therapy can prevent or slow the progression of long term diabetes complications. The regime to manage diabetes this way will include frequent testing and either regular shots of insulin or use of an insulin pump. The insulin pump is one device used in intensive insulin therapy.  It is of size of a beeper. It can be programmed to send a steady stream of insulin as basal insulin. It replaces insulin injections.

 

Endocrinology is the study of the endocrine system in the body. This is a system of glands which secrete hormones .Humans have over 50 different  hormones  . They exist in small amounts and still have a significant impact on bodily function and development  .   Hormones regulate metabolism , respiration , growth, reproduction ,sensory perception and movement. Hormone imbalances are the underlying reason for a wide range of medical conditions. Endocrinology focuses on both the hormones and the glands and tissues that produce them.

 

People who have diabetes have too much sugar in their blood  . Managing diabetes means managing your blood sugar level. What you eat is closely connected to the amount of sugar in your blood. The right food choices will help you control your blood sugar level . Eating well is one of the primary things you can do to help control diabetes. For most people who have diabetes, a healthy diet consists of 40 – 60 % of calories from carbohydrates  , 20% calories from protein,30% or fewer calories from fat .Your diet should also be low in cholesterol ,low in salt and low in added sugar.

 

People with type 2 diabetes do not make enough insulin  and/or their bodies do not respond well to it ,leading to elevated blood sugar levels. Oral diabetes medicines atre medicines that you take by mouth to help control your blood sugar level . eight categories of medicine are available in pill form : metoformin ( a biguanide) ,sulfonylureas , thaizoldinediones , meglitinides, inhibitors , sodium glucose transporter 2  and bile acid sequestrants.

 

Forty  percent of heart attacks result in death diabetes is a powerful risk factor for heart disease in women  .  Women often describe symptoms of nausea, fatigue and jaw pain. Several potential interacting factors may contribute to the acceleration of CHD risk in women with diabetes. These include a greater tendency to poor glycemic control, more severe elevations in blood pressure and circulating lipids, the development of central obesity, higher rates of depression and low socioeconomic status.

 

Pediatric Endocrinology is a subspecialty of pediatrics dealing with metabolic and endocrine disorders in children. The most common disease of the speciality is type 1 diabetes, which usually accounts for at least 50% of a typical clinical practice. The next most common problem is growth disorders, especially those amenable to growth hormone treatment. Pediatric endocrinologists are usually the primary physicians involved in the medical care of infants and children with intersex disorders. It also deals with hypoglycaemia and other forms of hyperglycemia in childhood, variations of puberty as well other adrenal, thyroid and pituitary problems.

 

The pituitary and adrenal glands are responsible for releasing hormones into your body. If you have a disorder of  the pituitary or adrenal gland , you are either making too much or not making enough of a certain hormone . The hormones secreted by the adrenal glands affect metabolism, chemicals in the blood and certain body characteristics. Pituitary gland makes many hormones that your body needs to function like : prolactin , growth hormone , thyroid stimulating hormone ,oxytocin . Pituitary tumours are the most common pituitary gland disorder.